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     The Founders’ Answer: Free, Sovereign and Independent States

     In the 1776 Declaration of Independence of the united States of America, the thirteen colonies seceded from Great Britain and declared themselves to be free and independent States with the powers of sovereign nations.

    In 1777, in Article II of the first constitutional contract, the Articles of Confederation, the thirteen State legislatures reserved to the States the freedom, sovereignty and independence of the States and all powers not delegated to the United States.

    In the 1783 Treaty of Paris ending the Revolutionary War with Great Britain, King George recognized each of the States by name as a free, sovereign and independent State.

    In the second constitutional contract styled the Constitution, in order to form a more perfect union, the people of each State, the highest sovereign authority of each State, entered into an “at will” constitutional contract with the people of each of the other States, the highest sovereign authorities of the other States, to form a federation of republics among the sovereign authorities of the States delegating to the central government limited sovereign powers.

    The Tenth Amendment to the Constitution clearly reserved to the States and to the people of the States, the highest sovereign authority of each State, all powers not delegated to United States or prohibited to the States.

    Nowhere in the Constitution does any State give up the State’s natural law moral right of self government, the State’s legal right to withdraw from the at will constitutional contract or the State’s right to rescind the constitutional contract when breached by another State or the United States.

    In 1790, after the thirteen States had entered into and agreed to the Constitution, the States were still free, sovereign and independent States.

    The term “State” has four meanings. First, a State means the geographical area of the State. Second, the State is the government elected to run and manage the affairs of the State by the people of the State according to the State’s constitution. Third, the State is the people inhabiting the State, and fourth, the State is the citizens of the State who have the right to vote. This fourth meaning of the term State is the voters with the authority to elect delegates to a convention of the people to wield and exercise the ultimate sovereign power of the State.

    The States need to resurrect and reassert their sovereign authority and the checks and balances it imposes over the Legislative, the Executive and the Judicial Branches of the United States.

    Insist on this resurrection and reassertion of State sovereignty by adopting and reciting